Rhinocytogram: form of the study, interpretation and interpretation of results

A prolonged runny nose can signal dangerous diseases. And this applies not only to adults, but also to children. Rhinocytogram is a study that can help in controversial situations arising in the diagnosis of a disease.

Deciphering such an analysis will take a minimum of time, but the treatment technique and other recommendations can be chosen immediately after receiving the result.

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Purpose of the study

So, a rhinocytogram is an analysis that can be used to draw conclusions about which microorganisms are present in the nasal cavity of the subject. The analysis is a nasal swab, which is most often prescribed for patients suffering from infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract (especially if the disease does not respond to classical treatment or constant relapses occur).

Rhinocytogram: form of the study, interpretation and interpretation of results

Rhinocytogram refers to microbiological research. It's no secret that a person's nose contains a huge number of microorganisms. However, only pathological bacteria can indicate the presence of a particular disease, while the physiological microflora is absolutely harmless.

For example, staphylococcus is considered a representative of physiological microorganisms (this bacterium multiplies in the nasal cavity). But Staphylococcus aureus, which is carried by a third of the entire population, is already a pathological bacteria. This pathogen is the cause of a huge number of diseases!

Indications for research

The analysis is performed if the patient has certain complaints, which include:

  • nasal congestion lasting more than 7 days;
  • mucous discharge that does not go away even after washing and using vasoconstrictor drops;
  • itching in the nasal cavity;
  • frequent sneezing.

Research procedure

A rhinocytogram can be performed at any time, it does not cause uncomfortable sensations in the patient and is generally a fairly simple procedure.

It is best if a smear sample for analysis is taken at the initial stage of the disease. The values ​​will be more accurate if the nasal cavity is not cleaned before the examination. In addition, it is prohibited to use various creams and nasal drops for two hours before the procedure. After canceling antibiotica is kept for up to five days before sampling, otherwise the decoding may be unreliable.

Rhinocytogram: form of the study, interpretation and interpretation of results

How does the procedure take place? In order to take a smear, a sick person will need to tilt his head back, and the specialist himself will perform the manipulation, which consists in the alternate introduction of special sticks into the nostrils to obtain the necessary material. Then they will be placed in a container designed for them with a base necessary for the growth and reproduction of bacteria.

If there is a need to obtain more accurate values, the procedure can be complicated. Such a study is performed under local anesthesia, and the smear is taken under the control of an endoscope. In this case, the material is taken from the paranasal sinuses, which makes it possible to identify the causative agent of the disease and its susceptibility to antibiotics.

In general, the procedure is completely painless, sometimes you may feel a little discomfort. The duration is usually only a few seconds.

Interpreting Study Metrics

Infections of a bacterial nature can be ruled out by a doctor if the rhinocytogram result is negative. But it should be understood that the decryption can be false-negative due to non-compliance with the recommendations by the patient or as a result of incorrect loading of the studied material.

In the case of negative indicators in the decoding of the rhinocytogram, various viruses can be recognized as the cause of the developing disease.

Positive values ​​as a result of the analysis may indicate that the patient is only a carrier of a certain kind of bacteria. This happens when he has no symptoms characteristic of a particular disease.

Rhinocytogram: form of the study, interpretation and interpretation of results

The true nature of the disease is determined using the percentage of morphological classifications of leukocytes. Thus, the presence of a large number of neutrophils is characteristic of the acute stage of rhinitis.

Allergic rhinitis is accompanied by an increased level of eosonophils. The increased content of these components indicates a possible infectious complication.

Norm of received values:

  • The number of lymphocytes should not exceed 10% (in children - 5%). If their number is growing rapidly, you can safely declare infection with influenza, adenovirus or other viral ailment.
  • Neutrophils should be present in single quantities - this is the norm. Their number over 1-3% indicates the presence of sinusitis, bacterial rhinitis, etc. At the same time, the discharge turns yellow-green and becomes thick.
  • Eosinophils normally should not exceed the threshold of 10% of the total number of leukocytes in the test material. Otherwise, we can talk about the allergic nature of the common cold, the development of hay fever, or eosinophilic rhinitis (which is not allergic).
  • WThe numbers of erythrocytes, like epithelial cells, should ideally be single. If there is a significant excess of their number, there are serious inflammatory processes in the subject's body.
  • Up to several units of leukocytes in the analysis decoding is a variant of the norm The norm exceeded several times indicates an infectious inflammation.
  • It's good if negative microflora values ​​are noted in the interpretation of the research result. In the case of its presence, its specific type is not determined, only its type is noted (for example, coccal bacteria, etc.).

It is important to know that not all people have lymphocytes and eosinophils, and their absence, as a rule, is not recognized as a pathology.

Using research in diagnostics

Rhinocytogram: form of the study, interpretation and interpretation of results

What does the rhinocytogram show? Most often, a sinus swab is taken to identify the causative agent of upper respiratory tract disease. Based on the results of this study, empirical antibiotic therapy is prescribed. However, the procedure is not carried out systematically, but is prescribed only in the case of an unresponsive rhinitis in a patient.

Tests for Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens are also carried out using sinus secretions obtained with a similar swab.

A swab from the nasal cavity can be useful for a special test, which, in turn, contributes to the correct and timely diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, as well as an informed choice of medications.

Rhinocytogram is a procedure that does not cause pain. Moreover, it is absolutely safe! The study does not require any specific preparation: it should only be noted that it is not recommended to pre-wash your nose and gargle. Deciphering the analysis can take from several minutes to several days, depending on the type of the procedure itself.

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